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Pramoedya Ananta Toer

Pramoedya Ananta Toer

Pramoedya Ananta Toer (born in Blora, Central Java, February 6, 1925 - died in Jakarta, 30 April 2006 at the age of 81 years), is widely regarded as one of the prolific writer in the history of Indonesian literature. Pramoedya has produced more than 50 works and translated into more than 41 foreign languages.

Pramoedya Ananta Toer History

Pramoedya was born in Blora in 1925 in the heart of Java island, as the eldest son in his family. His father was a teacher and his mother a rice seller. The original name of Pramoedya was Pramoedya Ananta Mastoer, as it is written in a collection of short stories titled semi-autobiographical story of Blora. Because Mastoer family name (father's name) were deemed too aristocratic, he removes Java prefix "Mas" of the name and use the "Tur" as a family name. Pramoedya was educated at Radio Vocational School in Surabaya, and then worked as a typist for the Japanese newspaper in Jakarta during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia.

Pramoedya Ananta Toer Post August 17, 1945

At the time of the independence of Indonesia, he followed military groups in Java and are often placed in Jakarta at the end of the war of independence. He wrote short stories and books throughout his military career and when he was imprisoned Dutch in Jakarta in 1948 and 1949. In the 1950s he lived in the Netherlands as part of a cultural exchange program, and when he returned to Indonesia he became a member LEKRA, one of the leftist organizations in Indonesia. The writing style changed over the period, as shown in his Corruption, fiction criticism of the civil service falls over corruption trap. This creates friction between Pramoedya and the Soekarno government.

During that time, he began studying the torture of Indonesian Chinese, then at the same time, he began to relate closely with writers in China. In particular, he published a series of correspondence with the Chinese writers who discuss the history of the Chinese in Indonesia, titled Hoakiau in Indonesia. He is a critic who ignored government of Java-centric on the needs and desires of the other regions in Indonesia, and is famous for proposing that the government should be moved to the outer islands. In 1960 he was arrested because the Suharto government pro-Communist views Tiongkoknya. His book was banned from circulation, and he was held without trial in Nusakambangan off the coast of Java, and finally on Buru island in eastern Indonesia.

Pramoedya Ananta Toer Detention and thereafter

Additionally been detained for three years in the colonial period and the first year during the Old Order, during the New Order period Pramoedya feel 14 years in jail as a political prisoner without trial (October 13, 1965 - July 1969, July 1969 - August 16, 1969 on the island of Nusakambangan, August 1969 - 12 November 1979 on the island of Buru, November - December 21, 1979 in Magelang). He was forbidden to write during her detention on Buru Island, but still manage to write his famous series of works entitled This Earth of Mankind, 4 serial semi-fictional novel chronicles the history of Indonesia. The main character Minke, a small aristocratic Javanese, reflected on the experience of RM Tirto Adisuryo a prominent movement in the colonial era that founded the organization Sarekat Priyayi and recognized by Pramoedya as the first national organization. His first volumes delivered orally at the sepenjaranya friends, and the rest is smuggled abroad for Australian authors collected and later published in English and Indonesian.

Pramoedya was released from custody on December 21, 1979 and obtain a letter of exemption is legally innocent and not involved in the September 30th Movement, but is still under house arrest in Jakarta to 1992, as well as the city jail and state prison until 1999, and is also required to report once a week to East Jakarta Military Command for approximately 2 years.

During that time he wrote a Turkish girl, semi-fictional novel based on the experience of his own grandmother. He also wrote The Mute's Soliloquy (1995), based on the autobiographical writings that he wrote for his daughter but was not allowed to be sent, and Arus Balik (1995). Complete edition of The Mute's Soliloquy translated into English by Willem Samuels, published in Indonesia by Hasta Mitra cooperate with Lontar Foundation in 1999 under the title The Mute's soliloquy: A Memoir

Pramoedya Ananta Toer Controversy

When Pramoedya receive the Ramon Magsaysay Award, 1995, reported as many as 26 Indonesian literary figures wrote letters 'protest' to the foundation Ramon Magsaysay. They do not agree, Pramoedya accused as "spokesman LEKRA most fierce executioner at the same time, hit, thrash, slaughter and devour" during the guided democracy, inappropriate awarded prizes and demanded the repeal of awards were conferred upon Pramoedya.

But a few days later, Taufik Ismail as initiators, rectify the message. He said, not demanding 'retraction', but reminded 'who Pramoedya it'. He said, many people do not understand this 'dark reputation' Pram first. And Magsaysay award regarded as a faux pas. But on the other hand, Mochtar Lubis even threatened restore Magsaysay prize awarded to her in 1958, when Pram still be awarded the same prize.

Lubis also said, HB Jassin Magsaysay will return the gift he had ever received. But, it turns out in the next reporting, HB Jassin even say anything else at all of the statements Mochtar Lubis.

In its opinions on the various media, the signatories of the petition 26 was felt as a victim of the pre-1965 situation. And they are demanding accountability Pram, to acknowledge and apologize would any role 'disgraceful' on the 'darkest period for creativity' in the time of Guided Democracy. Pram, said Mochtar Lubis, lead oppression of fellow artists who do not agree with it.

While Pramoedya himself assess all the writings and speeches in the pre-1965 was no more than 'the usual polemics group' which may be followed by anyone. He denied any involvement in various acts of 'too much'. He also felt maligned, when accused of participating burn all books. In fact, he suggested that his case was brought to court only if it is material enough. If it is not enough, take it to the open forum, he said, but with my provision shall answer and defend themselves, he added.

Since the New Order, Pramoedya never got the freedom to voice her own voice, and several times he was attacked and beaten publicly in the newspaper.

But in the exposure of Ricardo Pekik painter, who had also been a prisoner on the island of Buru, Pramoedya he referred to as a 'clerk'. Jobs clerk is meant by Joko yell is Pramoedya got the 'job' of officers Buru Island as a handyman ketiknya them. In fact, according to Joko yell, Pramoedya better luck than most prisoners there. Its status as a character artist by the media disseminated internationally, makes him tolerable life with the facilities - especially when there are guests from 'outside' who come Pramoedya certainly will be the 'star'.

Pramoedya Ananta Toer Old age

Pramoedya has written many columns and short articles that criticized the government of Indonesia to date. He wrote a book in the Virgin Teens Hold Military, documentation is written in the style of the sad women who are forced into Javanese comfort women during the Japanese occupation. Everything was brought to the island of Buru where they suffered sexual violence, end up staying there rather than go back to Java. Pramoedya made his acquaintance when he himself was a political prisoner in Buru Island during the 1970s.

Many of his writings touched the theme of interaction between cultures; Among the Dutch, Javanese kingdom, the Javanese in general, and Chinese. Many of his writings are also semi-autobiographical, in which he drew on his own experience. He continued to be active as a writer and columnist. He obtained the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication Arts, 1995. He has also been considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature. He also won the Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize XI in 2000 and in 2004 the Norwegian Authors' Union Award for his contributions to the literary world. He completed the trip to North America in 1999 and received an award from the University of Michigan.

Until the end of his life he was active as a writer, although his health has declined due to his old age and his love of smoking. On January 12, 2006, he is said to have a two-week lay ill at his home in Bojong Gede, Bogor, and hospitalized. According to reports, Pramoedya suffering from diabetes, shortness of breath and his heart weakened.

On February 6, 2006 at the Little Theatre Taman Ismail Marzuki, held a special exhibit on the cover of Pramoedya's books. This exhibition birthday gift-81 for Pramoedya. The exhibition titled Pram, Books and Youth Force presents the covers of books ever published in foreign countries. There are about 200 books were never translated into the various languages ​​of the world.

Pramoedya Ananta Toer died

On 27 April 2006, Pram was unconscious self. The family finally decided to take him to Saint Carolus Hospital the same day. Pram was diagnosed with pneumonia, a disease that has never been menjangkitinya, plus kidney complications, heart disease, and diabetes.

Pram only survive three days in the hospital. Once aware, he again asked to go home. Although demand was not sanctioned doctors, Pram insisted return. Saturday, April 29, at around 19:00, when I got home, conditions are much better. Although still critical, Pram was able leans and gesturing.

His condition worsened again at 20:00. Pram still able to smile and clenched his fists when the poet Eka Budianta see him. Pram also laughed when being whispered fans who visit him that Soeharto was still alive. Pram conditions which had been improved, and more critical. Pram then briefly removing the IV line and declared that he was cured. He then requested fed oatmeal and asked for cigarettes. But, of course, the request was not granted family. They just stick a cigarette in his mouth without lighting it Pram. These conditions persist until 22:00.

After that, several times she again experienced a critical period. The family decided to hold tahlilan to pray Pram. Pram tidal conditions set to continue until 02.00. At that time, he declared that God would soon get him. "Just Push me," he said. However, friends and relatives who do not keep Pram tired of giving spirit alive. Pram beautiful home is not only filled with children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. But, friends come to his fans waiting Pram.

Pram death news had spread since 03.00. The neighbors have already received the sad news. However, at 05.00, they again heard that Pram still alive. Finally, when his death, Pram was moaning, "Leave me alone. Burn me now," he said.

On April 30, 2006 at 8:55 Pramoedya died at the age of 81 years.

Hundreds of mourners filled the house and yard look Pram Road Multikarya II No. 26, Utan Kayu, East Jakarta. Mourners who attended, among others Sitor Situmorang, Erry Riyana Hardjapamengkas, Nurul Arifin and husband, Usman Hamid, Putu Wijaya, Goenawan, Gus Solah, Ratna Sarumpaet, Sudjatmiko, as well as dozens of activists, writers, and scholars. Also present were the Minister of Culture and Tourism Jero Wacik. Seen a funeral wreath mark, among others, from KontraS, Vice President Jusuf Kalla, the artist Happy Salma, the board of PDI-P, the Jakarta Arts Council, and others. Pram's friends who had been detained on Buru Island also attended the funeral. Including the youngsters fans Pram.

The bodies washed 12:30 pm, then disalatkan. After that, taken out of the house to put into the ambulance Pram to TPU Rubber bivouac. Sounding songs and Darah Juang Internationale sung among the mourners.

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